What Is Section Bending?

Bending Section

What Is Section Bending?

Section bending (also known as profile bending) is the curving of metal profiles in many different ways. It includes all the standard mill shapes (angles, bars, beams, channels, tees, pipe and tube), as well as aluminum extrusions and other complex sections that must be bent.

The bending process also requires special tooling to ensure that the cross-section remains in shape throughout the bend. This is important, because it may prevent the important functions of a section from being lost.

Bending Characteristics

Bending of metal parts is an important and often used process in the manufacturing industry. In general, sheet metal bending is a plastic deformation of the material over an axis, changing its shape and causing it to flex under load. The bending process also imparts strength and stiffness to the material. It can change a part’s moment of inertia and is used to eliminate sharp edges.

A bending section should be strong enough to support the loads it will receive in operation. The forming process, the materials used and the equipment all play an important role in determining the strength of the bending section.

The condition of the edges of a sheet metal is one of the most significant factors in determining its bending strength. Rough edges can reduce a metal’s bendability and cause it to crack under load. Cold working at the edges, as well as vacancies within the sheet metal, can also negatively affect a metal’s bendability.

Edges should be lubricated before they are bent to ensure that the metal does not become brittle. The lubrication also helps to control the amount of heat that is transferred to the sheet during a bending process.

There are several types of bending operations that are available including air bending, coining and bottoming. The forces involved in each of these bending methods vary greatly, so it is important to select the appropriate method for a given bending application.

Air bending is the most common type of bending used in the automotive industry, because it is fast and can be accomplished with small tools. It is less expensive than other bending processes and can attain high levels of precision.

The k-factor for air bending is typically between 0.3 and 0.5. This ratio represents the location of the neutral line after all forming stresses are applied and is calculated by multiplying the t/T value for the bending stress by the thickness of the material in question.

The k-factor may be different for different types of bending and depends on the specific metal forming process and the type of tool used. For example, a coining die has a smaller opening than an air bending die and so will require lower forces to bend the same metal.


Bending is a process used to shape metal parts into a specific angle or shape. Depending on the materials involved, this can be done by a wide variety of methods. Some of the most common materials used in bending sections include aluminum, stainless steel, and mild steel.

The elongation of a material plays an important role in determining the type of bend required to produce a specific radius. The higher the D of the bend, the more elongation is required to create it. Moreover, the properties of a metal (such as tensile strength, elongation, and ductility) affect how easily it can be bent.

This is why it is important to understand how a material will behave during the bending process before beginning to fabricate a product from it. The properties of a metal will also be affected by the type of bending process it is subjected to, such as rotary draw or section rolling.

Another factor affecting the bending Coil Pipe Assemblies of sheet metal is the quality of the edges and surface. Rough edges will decrease the metal’s ability to bend. Impurities in the metal, such as vacancies and inclusions, can also cause problems during the bending process.

When bending materials such as steel, the limit yield point is determined during a bending test. This point is the limit bending stress up to which the material can be loaded without permanent deformation in the peripheral areas.

During the bending test, the force and deflection are measured. The values are then analyzed and recorded for each step of the test. This allows for a detailed analysis of the material’s bending behavior.

If the material is brittle, the bending strength is determined using a single-axis bending stress. The bending stress is then compared to the yield strength of the tested material.

In case of ductile materials, the limit yield point, the greatest possible bending angle, and Young’s modulus are determined. In addition, the plasticity of the material is evaluated.

The bending process can also cause an area of the tube to experience a phenomenon called ovality. This occurs because the outer side of the tube receives tensile forces while the inner side of the tube receives compressive forces.

Bending Methods

Sheet metal is commonly bent to create parts for a wide variety of applications. These include structural components such as frames for skyscrapers, and furniture such as collapsible beds. Moreover, sheet metal is often used for sanitary purposes.

There are a number of different methods to bend sheet metal, which depend on the type and thickness of the material. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some methods are more accurate than others, while some may require tools.

Bottoming or bottom bending is one of the most common bending methods in sheet metal production. This bending process uses a die and punch to create a specific shape and angle. The die and punch also work together to prevent the springback of the material.

This bending method is often used for creating rectangular and square sheets as well as other shapes that have a defined edge. It also Coil Pipe Assemblies has a unique ability to distinguish the difference between different sections of a sheet metal.

The penetrating effect of the die and punch makes this a very precise bending method. This means that the resulting inside radius of the bend is very small.

Another bending method is coining, which uses a small coin to form a specific angle and shape. The coin’s penetrating effect ensures that the sheet metal’s inside radius is very small and the material does not spring back.

Air bending is another popular method of bending sheet metal. It is less accurate than bottoming and coining, but it is a simple bending method that does not require any tools.

Rotary bending is another bending method that uses a top die and a bottom die. The top die is a freely rotating cylinder that has the final formed shape cut into it and a matching bottom die that rotates as the forming process bends the sheet metal.

This bending method can produce angles greater than 90 degrees in one hit on standard press brakes. It is ideal for non-marring forming of pre-painted or sensitive materials and is a great choice for U-bends that are larger than 180 deg.

Bending Equipment

When creating a bending section, you need a variety of equipment to ensure that the job is done properly. This includes a bending machine, a pipe bender, and a tool that will help you align the workpieces during the bending process.

A bending machine is a device that can bend different types of metal materials into various shapes and angles. These machines can be hydraulic, CNC-controlled, or manual, and are commonly used in metalworking and fabrication applications to create pipes and tubes for plumbing, HVAC, automotive, and other industries.

The type of bending machine that you choose depends on your production needs and budget. The best option for your business is a bending machine that can handle the size of your workpieces and the amount of material that you need to bend.

You can also add controls to your bending machine, such as sensors and gauges that will allow you to monitor the bending process and control the speed and accuracy of the equipment. This will ensure that your workpieces are formed accurately and safely.

Another important piece of equipment you need for a bending section is a forming tool. A forming tool is an adjustable bending tool that can be set to produce specific bends on your workpieces. This tool can be used for wiping bending or V-bending, but it can also be used to bend sharp corners and edges, including angles that are often difficult to bend with other tools.

Depending on the type of material you are bending, a springback can occur when you bend it. This occurs because the compression or tensile strength of the metal is different on each side of the bend. Normally, this occurs on the inside side of the bend, but it can happen on the outside side as well.

One way to prevent this problem is by making a bend relief on the outer sides of your workpiece. This will relieve the stress on the surface of your material and prevent any springback.

Moreover, you should check the maximum flange length and inside radii of your bends to ensure that they can be made on your bending die. This is because if they are too long or wide, the force required to bend the parts may be too high, which could damage them.

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